C: Polymer Bonding
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C: Introduction
C: Guidelines
C: Background
C: References

Chapter C: Polymer Bonding

by Henrik Hvims and Helle Rønsberg

TABLE OF CONTENTS

C1. Level 1. Introduction to polymer bonding

C1.1    Introduction to polymer bonding

C1.2    Adhesive options

C1.3    General benefits and limitations of Conductive Adhesives   

C1.4    Conductive Adhesives General

C1.4.1 Materials – types of polymers

C1.4.1.1 Thermoplastics

C1.4.1.2 Thermosets

C1.4.1.3 Fillers

C1.5     Basic types of Conductive Polymers

C1.5.1 Intrinsically Conductive Polymers

C1.5.2 Isotropically Conductive Adhesives

C1.5.3 Anisotropic Conductive Adhesives

C1.5.3.1 Patterned Conductive Type

C1.5.3.2 Random Conductor Type

C1.5.4 Nonconductive Adhesives Used for Electrical Connections

C1.6 Why look for alternatives to solder?

C1.6.1 Solder joint stress cracking

C1.6.2 Thermal mismatch problems

C1.6.3 Leaching

C1.6.4 Environmental aspects

C1.6.4.1 Flux

C1.6.4.2 Lead

C2. Level 2. Conclusions and guidelines

C2.1     Design and production issues

C2.1.1 Applying the adhesive to the board

C2.1.2 The pick and place operation

C2.1.3 The curing operation

C2.1.4 Bleed out

C2.2     Basic facts about electrically conductive adhesives

C2.2.1       Isotropic electrically conductive adhesives

C2.2.1.1    Filled isotropic electrically conductive adhesives

C2.2.2      Non-filled isotropic electrically conductive adhesives

C2.2.3 Anisotropic electrically conductive adhesives

C2.2.4 Thermosetting adhesives

C2.2.4.1 One component thermosetting adhesives

C2.2.4.2 Two-component thermosetting adhesives

C2.2.4.3    The polymeric matrix in thermosetting adhesives

C2.2.4.4 The epoxy-based polymeric matrix

C2.2.4.5 The silicone based polymeric matrix

C2.2.4.6 The polyimide based polymeric matrix

C2.2.5 Thermoplastic adhesives

C2.2.6 Electrically conductive filler particles

C2.2.6.1 Material

C2.2.6.2 Particle shape and size

C2.2.7 Additives

C2.2.7.1    Reactive solvents

C2.2.7.2     Flexibility compounds

C2.3 Discussions of parameters relevant to the evaluation of the properties of adhesives

C2.3.1 Electrical conductivity

C2.3.2 Thermal conductivity

C2.3.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)

C2.3.4 Reworkability

C2.3.5 Rheology

C2.3.6 Ionic impurities

C2.3.7 Weight loss

C2.3.8 Flexibility

C2.3.9 Die shear strength

C2.3.10 Substrate

C2.3.11 Glass transition temperature

C2.3.12 Cost

C2.3.13     Reliability

C2.3.13.1     Electrical conductivity

C2.3.13.2     Shear strength

C2.3.13.3     Ageing of substrate or component

C2.3.13.4     Pre-tinned surfaces

C2.3.14     Environmental tests

C2.3.14.1   Thermal ageing

C2.3.14.2   Temperature shock/cycling

C2.3.14.3   Humidity storage

C2.3.14.4   Pressure cooker test/HAST

C2.4     The advantage of Adhesive Technology for SMT on rigid PCB

C2.5     Reliability

C2.5.1     Reliability investigations of ICA joints

C2.5.2     Reliability of amisotropic conductive Adhesives

C2.6    Failure causes

C2.6.1 Oxidation and corrosion (SnPb, Cu)

C2.6.2 Crack formation/delamination

C2.6.3 Silver depleted layer

C2.6.4 Creep of the adhesive

C2.6.5 Formation of an intermetallic layer

C2.6.6 Ag migration

C2.6.7 Processing defects

C2.7        The influence on internal and external environments

C2.7.1 External environmental aspects

C2.7.2     Internal environmental aspects

C3. Level 3. Background information

C3.1     Reports

C3.2     Papers

C4. Level 4. References

 

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